With a long course of brucellosis, muscle pains appear (most severely in the limbs and lower back) and fibrositis - longitudinal painful seals under the skin. With inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, a number of characteristic pain phenomena occur, which are paid attention to during diagnosis: In some cases, men develop pain and swelling in the scrotum and testicles (orchitis), women experience salpingo-oophoritis - inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries. There is also a residual form, or persistent residual effects of brucellosis. They develop if the disease lasts more than 2 years.

The transition of the chronic form to the residual one is characterized by the fact that fresh foci of infection and intoxication no longer occur. This indicates that the causative agent of brucellosis is absent in the human body. Residual effects are mainly associated with immunoallergic restructuring of the body and disorders of the autonomic nervous system. There is sweating, irritability, neuropsychic symptoms, arthralgia, body temperature sometimes rises to 37.1–38.0 °C.

When infected with brucellosis during or before pregnancy, more frequent toxicosis, impaired kidney function, anemia, and recurrent miscarriage are observed. Childbirth is often complicated by weak labor activity, inflammation of the tissues of the birth canal, and prolonged postpartum hemorrhage. The entrance gate of infection is the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract, mechanically damaged skin, conjunctiva of the eye. The infectious dose is 10-100 bacteria. There are no changes at the site of penetration of Brucella.

Further development and reproduction of Brucella occurs in the lymph nodes, from where they periodically penetrate into the bloodstream, resulting in repeated attacks to the spread of infection throughout the body. In response to infection, antibodies are produced, phagocytosis is stimulated (absorption by immune cells of the blood), which leads to the disappearance of the causative agent of brucellosis from the blood and a change in the clinical picture of the disease (smoothing of symptoms).

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